Ipek Osken, Ali Senol Gundogan, Emine Tekin, Mehmet S Eroglu, Turan Ozturk
Three groups of fluorenedithieno[3,2-b;2,3-d]thiophene-S,S-dioxides (DTT-S,S-dioxide) copolymers, each having four different ratios of DTT-S,S-dioxide (5, 15, 25, and 50%) were successfully synthesized through Suzuki coupling method. While the first group copolymers P1 had direct connection of fluorene to the peripheral thiophenes of DTT-S,S-dioxide, second group copolymers P2 had a thiophene extension between fluorene and DTT-S,S-dioxide, and in the third group, copolymers P3, fluorene had a connection with DTT-S,S-dioxide through the phenyl moiety of DTT. Absorbance and emission measurements of first two groups P1 and P2 displayed a regular bathochromic shift with increasing content of DTT-S,S-dioxide, which was more clearly observed in their solid state fluorescence measurements. Introduction of thiophene to the peripherals of the DTT-S,S-dioxide in copolymers P2 caused even further bathochromic shift in absorbances and emissions. As the absorbance and emission of P1 went up to 447 and 558 nm in solution, respectively, P2 had them at 472 and 592 nm, respectively. In solid state, emissions of P1 and P2 even went further up to 585 and 646 nm, respectively. The bathochromic trend of P1 and P2 became opposite with absorbance and solid state emission of P3, which had a hypsochromic shift with increasing content of DTT-S,S-dioxide. Solid state emission of P3, particularly the copolymers having 5, 15 and 50% DTT-S,S-dioxide, covered a wide region between 400 and 675 nm. A spread of colors from light blue (border of white) to red through green and yellow was obtained with the OLED applications of the copolymers. Their optical and electronic band gaps varied between 2.17 and 2.99 eV and between 2.68 and 3.57 eV, respectively. While the highest quantum yield was obtained with P2 (5%) as 0.66, the lowest was observed with P2 (50%) as 0.03. Almost all of the polymers displayed good thermal stabilities. No weight loss was observed with the copolymers P2 (515%) and P3 up to 400 °C.